The normal boiling point of a substance occurs when its vapor pressure is 1.00 atm, which means that at this temperature, the liquid is in equilibrium with its vapor at 1.00 atm pressure. What is the normal boiling point for Br2(l)


Answer 1


See explanation below


For start, we need some values here to do this exercise.

In general, you can calculate the normal boiling point of any substance by using the Clausius Clapeyron equation which is the following:

ln(P2/P1) = -ΔHvap/R (1/T2 - 1/T1)


P1 and P2: pressure of the substance at T1 and T2.

ΔHvap: enthalpy of vaporization of the substance. In the case of bromine is 29.6 kJ/mol

R: constant gas. In this case is 8.3145 J/mol K

T1 and T2: temperature of the substance.

In order to calculate the normal boiling point, we will assign that value to T2, and the pressure would be 1 atm or 1.01x10^5 Pa

T1 and P1 would be temperature and pressure of this substance at any condition. For this example, I will take the fact that Bromine has 22000 Pa at 20 °C (or 293.15 K)

With this data, let's replace in the clausius Clapeyron equation:

ln(1.01x10^5 / 22000) = -29600/8.3145 (1/T2 - 1/293.15)

-1.5241 * 8.3145 / 29600 = (1/T2 - 1/293.15)

-4.281x10^-4 + 1/293.15 = 1/T2

T2 = 1 / 2.9831x10^-3

T2 = 335.22 or 62.07 °C

The real one is 59 °C so, the difference in the result may come with the values of P1 and T1 that may be not accurate.

Related Questions


The Embargo Act of 1807 and the Neutrality Acts of the 1930s were both attempts by the United
States to
(1) assist struggling foreign economies
(2) halt the flow of immigrants
(3) avoid foreign conflicts
(4) reduce trade deficits


The Embargo Act of 1807 and the Neutrality Acts of the 1930's were both attempts by the United States to avoid foreign conflicts. The correct option in regards to all the options given in the question is option "3". The Embargo Act of 1807 prohibited all kinds of exports from United states of America. This Act would treat any export as illegal. This Act was also intended to keep America from avoiding any conflicts with the warring nations. The Neutrality act was also intended towards remaining neutral towards all fighting nations.


Which of the following was not included in the bill of rights


Freedom of speech, and religion


voting rights


There is nothing specifically written in the Bill of Rights regarding voting rights.


How should the two heats of reaction for the neutralization of naoh and hcl and hc2h3o2 compare?


Answer: he strong acid- strong base reaction should give more energy. So why is the heat of neutralization (enthalpy) of a strong acid such as HCl with a strong base like NaOH more than the heat of neutralization of a weak acid, such as acetic acid with NaOH? The enthalpy of neutralization of an acid by a base is defined as heat change when one gram equivalent of acid is neutralized by a base ,the reaction being carried out in dilute aqueous solution ... enthalpy of neutralization of base by an acid is defined in a similar manner... for example when 1 gram equivalent of HCl is neutralized with NaOH 57.1 kj of heat is produced .. HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq)----> NaCl (aq) + H2O (l)... H = -57.1 kj/mole hence enthalpy of neutralization of HCl with NaOH is 57.1 kj enthalpy of neutralization of any strong acid (like HCl,HNO3,H2SO4) with a strong base (like LiOH,NaOH,KOH) or vice versa is always the same i.e. 57.1 kj...this is because strong acids ,strong bases and salt that they form are all completely ionized in dilute aqueous solutions ...thus the reaction between any strong acid and strong base for example in the above case may be written as : NaOH (aq) + HCl(aq) -----> NaCl (aq) + H2O (l)... H = -57.1 kj/mole they will dissociate as : Na(+) (aq) + OH(-) (aq) + H(+) (aq) + Cl(-) (aq) ---> Na(+) (aq) + Cl(-) (aq) + H2O (l) common ions will cancel out.. H(+) (aq) + OH(-) (aq) ----> H2O (l) thus neutralization is simply a reaction between H(+) ions given by acids and OH(-) ions given by base to form one mole of H2O.....since strong acid and strong base completely ionize in aqueous solution number of H(+) and OH(-) produced by 1 gram equivalent of strong acid and strong base is always the same ...hence enthalpy of neutralization between a strong acid and strong base is always constant... if either the acid or base or both are weak the enthalpy of neutralization is less than 57.1 kj ...the reason for this behaviour can be explained by considering the neutralization between a strong base like NaOH and weak acid like acetic acid.. now acetic acid ionizes to a small extent whereas NaOH ionizes completely as : NaOH (aq) ----> Na(+) (aq) + OH(-) (aq) CH3COOH (aq) CH3COO(-)(aq) + H(+)(aq) (an equilibrium) when H(+) given by acid combine with OH(-) given by base the equilibrium shifts to right (in accordance with Le Chatelier's principle) ,so more of acetic acid dissociates ...a part of heat produced during combination of H(+) and OH(-) ions is used up for complete dissociation of acetic acid ...the heat thus used up is called enthalpy of dissociation or enthalpy of ionization is 1.9 kj for acetic acid...hence net heat evolved in above reaction is 57.1 - 1. 9 = 55.2 kj ...which less than that evolved in strong base and strong acid reaction.

I PLEASE HELP! How many liters of a 2.25 molar hydrobromic acid (HBr) solution would be needed to react completely with 100.0 grams of calcium metal? Ca (s) + 2HBr (aq) CaBr2 (aq) + H2 (g)


Moles of calcium metal used = 100/40.1=2.5
Moles of HBr need to react = 5 moles 
As the molar ratio is 1 is to 2 among them 
Moles=molarity x volume
5=2.25 x volume
volume=2.22 litres of HBr required for this reaction

Activity 3 Reading Review


Um where's the paper bro

How many nodal planes through the nucleus do you think a g orbital has?


A node is defined as a point around the nucleus where the probability of finding an electron is zero.
A nodal plane passes through the nucleus.
The number of nodal planes for a certain orbital is equivalent to the angular momentum quantum number (l) of this orbital.

Therefore, since the orbital g has l=4, therefore,
the number of nodal planes = 4
First of all, node is the point or region around the nucleus where there is zero probability of finding the electron. Nodal plane or angular node passes through the nucleus. no. of nodal planes = azimuthal quantum number = l Radial node does not pass through the nucleus. no. of radial nodes = n-l-1 where n= princ. quantum no.

When water freezes as snow, it takes on the __________ phase. a. solid
b. liquid
c. gas


The answer would be a

If 28.64g of N2 reacts with 8.42g of H2 to produce NH3. What is the limiting reactant



nitrogen is limiting reactant


Given data;

Mass of nitrogen = 28.64 g

Mass of hydrogen = 8.42 g

Limiting reactant = ?


Chemical equation:

N₂ + 3H₂ → 2NH₃

Number of moles of nitrogen:

Number of moles = mass/ molar mass

Number of moles = 28.64 g / 28 g/mol

Number of moles = 1.02 mol

Number of moles of hydrogen:

Number of moles = mass/ molar mass

Number of moles = 8.42 g / 2 g/mol

Number of moles = 4.21 mol

Now we compare the moles ammonia with hydrogen and nitrogen

                                N₂       :      NH₃

                                  1         :        2

                                   1.02   :      2/1 ×1.02 = 2.04 mol


                                   H₂       :      NH₃

                                     3        :        2

                                     4.21     :      2/3×4.21 = 2.8 mol

The number of moles of ammonia produced by nitrogen are less so it will limiting reactant.


Question 8 Mile Choice Worth 5 points) (01.01 MC
Read the scientific question below.
"Do fertilizers make plants grow faster?"
What is a likely hypothesis for the question?
Yes, fertilizers make plants grow faster.
No, water and sunlight make the plants grow faster.
If we fertilize a plant, then its height increases faster.
If we add fertilizers to the soil, then there will be nutrients in the soil.



If we fertilize a plant, then its height increases faster.


A hypothesis is an assumption or postulation based on data and constitute the basis for an investigation. The hypothesis constructs the central question of the research in the affirmative. From the question we were asked, the affirmation that is the most similar to the options provided is; 'If we fertilize a plant, then its height increases faster.' A hypothesis is to be written in a way that it is easily proved or disproved by carrying out an experiment. In this case, an experiment may be designed from our hypothesis, that is,measuring the height of the plants when adding fertilizer and when not, as a test of the hypothesis.

Answer: Yes fertilizers do make plants grow faster but the three combined water, sunlight, and fertilizer they grow much faster.

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