Involves the transport of ions
Cells need certain substances in form of ions to function. These ions /solutes dissolve in a solvent (usually water) and move in and out of the cell. This movement is propelled by the osmotic/electrochemical gradient formed between the cell's membrane and the extracellular content. In nature, this dissolved solutes move down the concentration gradient.
However, in case whereby the concentration gradient is not favorable for the solute to move into the cell, the cell brings them in against concentration gradient using energy in form of ATP. This process is known as ACTIVE TRANSPORT. Active transport is the movement of ions/substances across a membrane against concentration gradient with the use of ATP.
An important example is the sodium-pottasium pump that moves sodium (Na+) into the cell and pottasium (K+) out of the cell.
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What's the difference between diffusion, osmosis and active transport with examples.
These are three key processes of movement that you need to be aware of.
Diffusion is the movement of dissolved solutes or gases from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration (down a concentration gradient). This is a passive process and so requires no energy in order to take place.
Osmosis is the movement of water down a concentration gradient (from high to low concentration) across a partially permeable membrane. Once again, this is a passive process and no energy is required.
Active transport is the movement of dissolved solutes across a membrane against a concentration gradient (moving from low to high concentration). This process requires a carrier protein, and energy in the form of ATP is required.
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Only the bases varies from one nucleotide to another.
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What are the 3 most important energy-carrier molecules in a cell? What are their overall jobs?
Three important energy carrier molecules in a cell are: ATP (Adenosine triphosphate, NADPH (Nicotinamide Adenosine Dinucleotide Phosphate) and FADH2.
All the three carrier molecules play an important role in cellular respiration and photosynthesis. One NADH molecule is equal to 3 ATP molecule while 1 FADH2 molecule is equal to 2 ATP molecule.
During the active process, ATP is used as a form of energy because ATP dephosphorylates to ADP and Inorganic phosphate, Pi and release energy.